Externalities and “alternative fact

imageExternalities and “alternative fact”…

Inherent in this title is the presumption you know what an “externality” is…?    And moreover you know precisely what an “alternative fact”…is..?

‘Externality” ... An externality is a consequence of any economic activity experienced by unrelated third parties; it can be either positive or negative.   For example, pollution emitted by a factory that spoils the surrounding environment and affects the health of nearby residents is an example of a negative externality. Or the effect of a well-educated labor force on the productivity of a company is an example of a positive externality…

 

…”Alternative fact”…  "Alternative facts" is a phrase used by U.S. Counselor to the President Kellyanne Conway during a Meet the Press interview on January 22, 2017, in which she defended White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer’s false statement about the attendance numbers of Donald Trump’s inauguration as President of the United States. When pressed during the interview with Chuck Todd to explain why Spicer "utter[ed] a provable falsehood", Conway stated that Spicer was giving "alternative facts". Todd responded, "Look, alternative facts are not facts. They’re falsehoods." …  Conway’s use of the phrase "alternative facts" to describe demonstrable falsehoods was widely mocked on social media and sharply criticized by journalists and media organizations, including Dan Rather, Jill Abramson, and the Public Relations Society of America. The phrase was extensively described as Orwellian. Within four days of the interview, sales of the book 1984 had increased by 9,500%, which The New York Times and others attributed to Conway’s use of the phrase, making it the number-one bestseller on Amazon.com.    Conway later defended her choice of words, defining "alternative facts" as "additional facts and alternative information".

 

…One can rightly question whether there is any legitimate correlation between an externality and an alternative fact…?

 

…Examples of what many perceive as negative externalities… Light pollution, Air pollution , Anthropogenic climate change, Water pollution, Systemic risks, Industrial farm animal production, depletion of the stock of fish in the ocean due to overfishing, cost of storing nuclear waste.   Conversely, the costs of managing the long term risks of disposal of chemicals, which may remain hazardous on similar time scales, Noise pollution, Sleep deprivation, Antibiotic resistance, caused by increased usage of antibiotics, Passive smoking, Traffic congestion, Price increases called pecuniary externalities" and are distinguished from "real externalities" or "technological externalities".  Pecuniary externalities appear to be externalities, but occur within the market mechanism and are not considered to be a source of market failure or inefficiency, although they may still result in substantial harm to others

…A positive externality (also called "external benefit" or "external economy" or "beneficial externality") is the positive effect an activity imposes on an unrelated third party

Examples of positive production externalities include:  A beekeeper who keeps the bees for their honey. A side effect or externality associated with such activity is the pollination of surrounding crops by the bees. The value generated by the pollination may be more important than the value of the harvested honey.

The construction and operation of an airport. This will benefit local businesses, because of the increased accessibility.

An industrial company providing first aid classes for employees to increase on the job safety. This may also save lives outside the factory.

Examples of positive consumption externalities include:  An individual who maintains an attractive house may confer benefits to neighbors in the form of increased market values for their properties.

Homeowners who purchase private fire protection services provide a positive externality to neighboring properties, which are less at risk of the protected neighbor’s fire spreading to their (unprotected) house.

The existence or management of externalities may give rise to political or legal conflicts.[citation needed]   Collective solutions or public policies are implemented to regulate activities with positive or negative externalities.

 

…It strikes me there is an inescapable unalterable connection between any externality and the now TRUMP sanctioned term…alternative fact

 

…That the term  CLIMAE CHANGE is not permitted in any form by Trump administration clouds and significantly alters  who and/or what is responsible for the increasing catastrophic weather events experienced worldwide…

 

That one can at any point interject what is sanctioned by “current authority” as viable “alternative fact” creates chaos, disbelief, delusion…

 

…This acceptance of sanctioned “alternative fact” creates an environment wherein there are NO negative externalities …and believing that a negative externality exists likely will lead to ones incarceration…

 

Is this the America in which we choose to swear our allegiance…???

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